Seed-Corn Grant Winners 2016-2017
GLP1 receptor agonists treatment for diabesity
In the world, ~500 million people estimated to have diabesity (obesity with diabetes) by 2025. The proposed project will analyse the molecular basis of the relationship between GLP-1R agonists, obesity and insulin sensitivity. If we manage to establish GLP-1R agonists as pharmacological substitute for bariatric surgery, then it will save a huge amount of money currently spent by NHS Wales for treating diabesity with bariatric surgery.
Ghrelin’s protective role in Parkinson’s disease
Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that is elevated during periods of fasting protects nerve cells in the brain. This project will investigate and identify the molecular mechanisms involved in ghrelin-induced autophagy and asses its impact on neuroprotection in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease.
Metabolomics of Asthma
Asthma remains a global health concern and the commonest long-term condition in the UK affecting 5.4 million. Metabolomics refers to the analysis of metabolites (<1kd) generated from cellular metabolic activity and has the potential to identify key biomarkers in asthma. Using mass spectrometry we will characterise the oxysterol profile in urine, serum and bronchial tissue in asthma versus controls. This work could identify a diagnostic asthma biomarker and provide novel targets in steroid resistant disease.
3D Bioprinting of Cartilage for Facial Reconstruction
3D bioprinting has the potential to allow custom printing of replacement tissue or organs. However, the biomaterials available for printing do not provide the structural integrity needed to print complex structures. We have found that Nanocellulose shows great promise for 3D bioprinting purposes, specifically for cartilage tissue. Culturing of chondrocytes with nanocellulose has shown enhanced compatibility and protein expression similar to native cartilage tissue. Using 3D bioprinting we are aiming to revolutionise the treatment of patients with facial disfigurements as a result of burns, cancer, or congenital conditions.
Seed-Corn Grant Winners 2015-2016
Ghrelin, autophagy and Parkinson's disease
Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that is elevated during periods of fasting and protects nerve cells in the brain. This project will investigate and identify the molecular mechanisms involved in ghrelin-induced autophagy (autophagy – the normal healthy process that deals with destruction of unwanted cells in the body) and asses its impact on neuroprotection (neuroprotection - preservation of the structure and/or function of the neurons in the brain) in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease.
Spectroscopy for early lung cancer diagnosis
Lung cancer is the most common cancer type worldwide. Survival time is poor with over 90% of patients dying within five years of diagnosis due to late detection. A simple, cost-effective, non-invasive test at point-of-care (POC) could facilitate early detection of lung cancer. (Point of Care or bedside testing is defined as medical diagnostic testing at or near the point of care – that is, at the time and place of patient care). We are developing handheld infrared spectroscopy (FITR) on sputum to determine if we can distinguish between lung cancer patients and age-matched controls. We will then characterise the differences using Mass Spectrometry.
Staphylococci: an "immune-commensal code"
The skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as an important pathogen responsible for medical device related infections. Understanding how the heterogeneity of staphylococci on the skin (different bacterial types in different skin locations) can lead to protective immune responses on one hand and medical device-related infections on the other is the aim of this study. Such knowledge will later be explored in the prevention of staphylococcal infection.
Targeting pancreatic cancer using a novel lytic peptide
Prof Kanamarlapudi’s team has developed a novel chemical compound that attaches to a protein expressed only on the surface of pancreatic cancer cells, and causes those cells to burst open and die. In addition, working on the cell’s surface suggests that cancer cells won’t develop resistance to the drug. This project will test how the compound works using human pancreatic cells in the laboratory, with the aim of its future development as a potential treatment against pancreatic cancer.
Fuelling T-lymphocyte function and memory
Understanding of comparative fuel and energy utilization by various T lymphocyte populations has implications in the generation and maintenance of a successful memory T lymphocyte populations and in immunity. Therapeutic possibilities (eg- to manipulate the immunometabolic profile of memory T cell populations) may be valuable in improving immunisation methods and stimulating helpful immunity against cancers.
Teaching quality: teacher/student evaluations
Ensuring the best teaching is key to training the very best doctors for the future. This project will bring together both student and teacher evaluation of diverse lectures given. Medical students and teaching staff will watch short videos of a teaching session and then complete a teaching evaluation questionnaire. The feedback from both groups will then be analysed and compared.